# Julia: How to Fill A Missing Value with the Previous Non-missing Value

Hongtao Hao / 2021-06-27

The following codes were tested under Julia v1.6.1 and DataFrames v1.2.0.

I saw this question on Stack Overflow: What’s an efficient way to fill missing values with previous non-missing value? .

I’ll answer in the following.

The following answer is entirely based on the discussions in this thread: Julia DataFrame Fill NA with LOCF . More specifically, it is based on the answers by Danish Shrestha, Dan Getz , and btsays .

As laborg implies, the accumulate function in Base Julia will do the job.

Suppose we have an array: a = [1, missing, 2, missing, 9]. We want to replace the 1st missing with 1 and the second with 2: a = [1, 1, 2, 2, 9], which is a = a[[1, 1, 3, 3, 5]] ([1, 1, 3, 3, 5] here are indexes).

This function will do the job:

ffill(v) = v[accumulate(max, [i*!ismissing(v[i]) for i in 1:length(v)], init=1)]


BTW, “ffill” means “forward filling”, a name I adopted from Pandas.

I’ll explain in the following.

What the accumulate function does is that it returns a new array based on the array we input.

For those of you who are new to Julia like me: in Julia’s mathematical operations, i*true = i, and i*false=0. Therefore, when an element in the array is NOT missing, then i*!ismissing() = i; otherwise, i*!ismissing() = 0.

In the case of a = [1, missing, 2, missing, 9], [i*!ismissing(a[i]) for i in 1:length(a)] will return [1, 0, 3, 0, 5]. Since this array is in the accumulate function where the operation is max, we’ll get [1, 1, 3, 3, 5].

Then a[[1, 1, 3, 3, 5]] will return [1, 1, 2, 2, 9].

That’s why

a = ffill(a)


will get [1, 1, 2, 2, 9].

Now, you may wonder why we have init = 1 in ffill(v). Say, b = [missing, 1, missing, 3]. Then, [i*!ismissing(b[i]) for i in 1:length(b)] will return [0, 2, 0, 4]. Then the accumulate function will return [0, 2, 2, 4]. The next step, b[[0, 2, 2, 4]] will throw an error because in Julia, index starts from 1 not 0. Therefore, b[0] doesn’t mean anything.

With init = 1 in the accumulate function, we’ll get [1, 2, 2, 4] rather than [0, 2, 2, 4] since 1 (the init we set) is larger than 0 (the first number).

We can go further from here. The ffill() function above only works for a single array. But what if we have a large dataframe?

Say, we have:

using DataFrames

a = ["Tom", "Mike", "John", "Jason", "Bob"]
b = [missing, 2, 3, missing, 8]
c = [1, 3, missing, 99, missing]
df = DataFrame(:Name => a, :Var1 => b, :Var2 => c)

julia> df

5×3 DataFrame
Row │ Name    Var1     Var2
│ String  Int64?   Int64?
─────┼──────────────────────────
1 │ Tom     missing        1
2 │ Mike          2        3
3 │ John          3  missing
4 │ Jason   missing       99
5 │ Bob           8  missing


Here, Dan Getz’s answer comes in handy:

nona_df = DataFrame([ffill(df[!, c]) for c in names(df)], names(df))

julia> nona_df

5×3 DataFrame
Row │ Name    Var1     Var2
│ String  Int64?   Int64?
─────┼─────────────────────────
1 │ Tom     missing       1
2 │ Mike          2       3
3 │ John          3       3
4 │ Jason         3      99
5 │ Bob           8      99


## Reflections #

• Two questions to think about:

1. In nona_df = ..., is there any difference between using ffill(df[!, c]) and using ffill(df[:, c])?

2. When we use ffill(df[!, c]), will values in the original df be changed as well?

• Answers to the above two questions:

1. ! and : are different when accessing a column. ! references directly to df whereas : makes a copy of that column. In the case of ffill, the function basically creates a new array based on the array we input. Therefore, no matter how we modify the result offfill(df[!, c]) or ffill(df[:, c]), df remains unchanged. So practically speaking, there is no difference between using ffill(df[!, c]) and using ffill(df[:, c]).

2. No. df will remain the same.